Land Use Planning and Resource Management

Since 2011, the Conflict Sensitive Resource and Asset Management (COSERAM) Program supports an integrated approach of poverty reduction and peace building in the region of Caraga and other conflict-affected areas in the Philippines. The COSERAM Program is a joint undertaking of the Philippine and German Governments, implemented by GIZ and partner agencies. The core process of Land Use Planning and Resource Management (LRM) brings together an ecosystem-based approach in land use and development planning processes for equitable resource access, utilization, development and management. In close coordination with government agencies and local government units (LGUs) at different levels, land use planning and resource management processes are revisited.  Planning is applied as a strategic approach to address land and resource-based conflicts, with lenses on conflict, culture and gender sensitivity for sound territorial development 


Balanced allocation of land is a huge challenge among LGUs in the Philippines. With a growing population, the capacity of nature to provide for and meet the essentials of living is limited. Competition for access to and utilization of natural resources is deeply-rooted. Complex resource-based conflicts continue to result in violent confrontations and contribute to the displacement of thousands of people.

LGUs are faced with various challenges:

  1. Challenges to sound territorial development.
  • Limited LGU capacity and resources to provide conflict sensitive land use planning and to know how to integrate gender, conflict sensitivity, Indigenous People (IP) rights and environmental aspects including climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into local planning.
  • Lack of ownership over externally formulated land use plans.
  1. Challenges to coherent land management:
  • Multiple sectorial plans with classified zoning are not harmonized with other plans.
  • Weak linkages between plan, budget and policy direction, as well as the monitoring, evaluation and assessment of plan implementation.


The core process builds up on the experiences gained in Butuan City, Santiago and Carmen in Agusan del Norte and Malimono in Surigao del Norte, as well as existing government guidelines. With the use of technology such as geographic information system (GIS) and by taking Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices (IKSPs) into account, technical adivice on the formulation of local land use and development plans as well as resource use policies is offered. Further support is provided through a bottom-up process to guarantee participatory decision-making on land use options.

Utmost attention is given to capacity building of local civil servants involved in resource allocation to enable them to respond to development challenges, security issues, human concerns, natural hazards, and risks in a conflict sensitive manner. This is implemented through a cascading approach in which planners at the provincial level are trained as trainers, coaches and mentors to the planners of the constituent cities and municipalities, who in turn mentor and train the planners and implementers at the barangay level. Capacity development is geared towards government planners and implementers to achieve work efficacy, process effectiveness and content quality. A competency-based blended learning system on governance and management is jointly designed and delivered in coordination with government agencies and in partnership with academic institutions. Peer-to-peer learning is promoted and practiced for further knowledge and competency improvement.

Anticipated Results

  • The trained, equipped and enabled local planning functionaries of LGUs apply tools and methods in ecosystem-based conflict, culture and gender sensitive land use and development planning, as well as implement resource governance responsibly.
  • LGUs institutionalize an inclusive and multi-sectoral approach to decision-making processes, ensuring community involvement through development councils. Wide participation is enabled to guarantee ownership in addressing resource-based conflicts.
  • Communities adopt rational resource use policies and implement purposive development initiatives, ensuring sustainable livelihoods, promoting human security and increasing equitable access to resources.

Lead Executing Partners:

Local Government Units (LGUs)

Other drivers of the Process:

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)

Target Groups:

Marginalized population (women, youth, children, indigenous peoples, fishers, farmers,)


January 2011-December 2018

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